Postpartum Depression

Written by:Wendy Wisner

Published On: May 7, 2021

Medically reviewed by: Cynthia V. Catchings, LCSW-S

Reviewed On: May 7, 2021

Updated On: April 19, 2023


The time after you have a baby is supposed to be a time of joy and happiness. Your much-awaited bundle of sweetness is here and you are supposed to be over-the-moon and in love with your new child. Yet, for many moms, there may be a dark underbelly to their postpartum experience. Postpartum can be overwhelming — an overwhelming time of stress and fear. Some mothers also develop a serious mental health condition called postpartum depression.

What is Postpartum Depression?

Postpartum depression is defined by feelings of severe depression in mothers following the birth of a child and thought to be due to psychological adjustments to motherhood, hormonal changes, and fatigue — it’s also more common than most would suspect. About 1 in 7 moms develop postpartum depression after giving birth — some may even develop the condition during pregnancy. Postpartum depression usually affects moms in the first few weeks after giving birth, but others experience it several months down the road, even up to a year after giving birth.

Postpartum depression isn’t just a “sad feeling” you need to get over — it involves feelings of anxiety, extreme mood swings, and an inability to function normally. And while it’s true that most postpartum moms are generally prone to things like mood swings and stress, postpartum depression isn’t the same as “the baby blues,” a phenomenon experienced by about 70% of new mothers, usually attributed to shifting hormones and sleep deprivation.

A diagnosis of postpartum depression may be made when mood swings, anxiety and depression are severe, and last more than the first two weeks postpartum. Postpartum depression can be dangerous for both the baby and the new mother.

Symptoms of Postpartum Depression

If you experience the following symptoms for more than two weeks and they are interfering with your day-to-day life, you may be experiencing postpartum depression:

  • Loss of interest: Lost of interest in activities you previously enjoyed
  • Changed behaviors: Change in eating habits or sleep
  • Anxiety: Anxiety or panic attacks
  • Intense feelings: Feeling guilty, like you can't connect with your baby, like a "bad mom" or a failure, numb, afraid to be left alone with your baby
  • Intrusive thoughts: Racing thoughts, insomnia, anger, or irritability, sadness
  • Concentration: Difficulty concentrating or focusing on tasks


The symptoms of postpartum depression sometimes take mothers by surprise, they comprise not just classic depression symptoms, but also include symptoms of anxiety, OCD, and even anger.

Some moms experience suicidal ideation. If you are having any thoughts of harming yourself or your baby, please dial 911 or call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline (1-800-273-8255).

In addition, if you are experiencing signs of psychosis or mania (hearing voices and experiencing hallucinations), you may be suffering from postpartum psychosis, a rare but very serious condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Causes of Postpartum Depression

There are some factors that may make a mother more prone to developing postpartum depression, including:

  • A difficult or traumatic birth
  • A baby who is medically fragile or has spent time in the NICU
  • A previous experience of postpartum depression
  • A family history of mental illness
  • A baby who has colic or is difficult to manage or comfort
  • Financial stresses
  • Lack of social support


It’s important to understand that postpartum depression can affect all mothers regardless of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, or even the strength of her support system.

How to Treat Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression can be scary and extremely distressing, both for moms who experience it as well as their loved ones.  Sometimes the hardest part of getting help for postpartum depression is reaching out for the first time. Many moms feel completely alone in their emotions, stigmatized, and are ashamed of how they are feeling; this may cause them to delay reaching out for help.

But the good news is that once it’s diagnosed, it’s generally quite treatable. Taking an online postpartum depression screening can be a great first step in understanding how the condition is impacting you so that you can begin to seek treatment. Postpartum depression is typically treated with talk therapy — or a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Moms may also find it helpful to join a postpartum depression support group.



Building a Support System

Options like online or virtual therapy may be helpful for those moms who have never reached out to a therapist or don’t know how they will find the time to get the help they need. Additionally, many new mother support groups also have online components that many find beneficial. Take the first step by filling out a postpartum depression assessment to focus your symptoms and start getting help.

Most importantly, moms should know they are not alone. So many new mothers experience postpartum depression. You didn’t do anything wrong if you find yourself struggling with this condition or any of these symptoms. Above all, know that there are options available for you to feel better and live your best, healthiest life — for yourself and your baby.

Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may refer you to a psychiatrist for prescribed medication. They may prescribe you with common types of medication for depression.

Making sure to have a robust support network to help with things like baby care and chores can make a difference for moms who are struggling with postpartum depression. After all, caring for a baby really is as all-consuming and difficult as it seems — no mom is meant to “do it all.” It takes a village to raise a child, just as it can take a village to support a mom who is trying to raise that child.


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Frequently Asked Questions

When should someone seek help for postpartum depression?

When to see a doctor

If you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, call 911 or your local emergency number immediately.

When to get emergency help

If you feel depressed, make an appointment to see your doctor or mental health professional as soon as you can. If you’re reluctant to seek treatment, talk to a friend or loved one, any health care professional, a faith leader, or someone else you trust.

Consider these additional options if you’re having suicidal thoughts:

  • Call your doctor or mental health professional.
  • Call a suicide hotline number — in the U.S., call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255). Use that same number and press “1” to reach the Veterans Crisis Line.
  • Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
  • Contact a minister, spiritual leader or someone else in your faith community.

If you have a loved one who is in danger of suicide or has made a suicide attempt, make sure someone stays with that person. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately. Or, if you think you can do so safely, take the person to the nearest hospital emergency room.

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See References

  • Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders.

    MGH Center for Women’s Mental Health. Accessed May 2021.

  • What Is Postpartum Depression?

    American Psychiatric Association. Written October 2020.

  • Postpartum Depression

    Mayo Clinic. Accessed May 2021.

  • Depression During Pregnancy

    Mayo Clinic. Accessed May 2021.

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